Sparta, located in the Peloponnese the southern peninsula of mainland Greecewas most powerful as a land force. A prominent theme can be found in book 2 chapter 53, in which, Thucydides describes Athens after it had been hit with a devastating plague.
After detailing the armed conflict between the Athenians and the Spartans and their respective allies between and BCE, the eight-book text ends abruptly in the middle of a chapter as if, one day, the writer simply dropped his pen and left his desk, never to return.
This is clearly indicative of the idea that war is a violent teacher. The most numerous and compact body rushed into a large building next to the city wall: The same summer, at the beginning of a new lunar month, the only time by the way at which it appears possible, the sun was eclipsed after noon.
Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers. Why is it used. Thucydides would have agreed.
Making descents from the fleet he ravaged certain places on the sea-coast, and captured Thronium and took hostages from it. Even during the levying of the war he had credit for weakness and Athenian sympathies by the half measures he had advocated; and after the army had assembled he had further injured himself in public estimation by his loitering at the Isthmus and the slowness with which the rest of the march had been conducted.
In the meanwhile, as long as the army was at Eleusis and the Thriasian plain, hopes were still entertained of its not advancing any nearer. The bodies of dying men lay one upon another, and half-dead creatures reeled about the streets and gathered round all the fountains in their longing for water.
The lost lives are not something to be mourned, he says, as men can potentially die at any point in time.
Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes no part in these duties not as unambitious but as useless, we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and, instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all.
Such was their financial position- surely a satisfactory one.
When the god was asked whether they should go to war, he answered that if they put their might into it, victory would be theirs, and that he would himself be with them. In chapter 18 of book 4, Thucydides writes of another speech that was given by Spartan envoys to the Athenians after the events of the Battle of Pylos, where many Spartan hoplites were taken hostage.
Pericles also showed them that they had twelve hundred horse including mounted archers, with sixteen hundred archers unmounted, and three hundred galleys fit for service. There are also other ancient temples in this quarter. This is the Theban account of the matter, and they say that they had an oath given them.
All speculation as to its origin and its causes, if causes can be found adequate to produce so great a disturbance, I leave to other writers, whether lay or professional; for myself, I shall simply set down its nature, and explain the symptoms by which perhaps it may be recognized by the student, if it should ever break out again.
Meanwhile the town enjoyed an immunity from all the ordinary disorders; or if any case occurred, it ended in this. The Athenians reply that, although Melos has done nothing to offend them, they are justified in destroying them simply because they can: They dwelt in the country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down free to the present time by their valour.
Therefore, numerous as the invading army may appear to be, and certain as some may think it that our adversary will not meet us in the field, this is no sort of justification for the least negligence upon the march; but the officers and men of each particular city should always be prepared for the advent of danger in their own quarters.
Strong and weak constitutions proved equally incapable of resistance, all alike being swept away, although dieted with the utmost precaution. Nevertheless, Thucydides was extremely meticulous in his documentation, and records the varied certainty of his sources each time. And that this is no mere boast thrown out for the occasion, but plain matter of fact, the power of the state acquired by these habits proves.
By far the most terrible feature in the malady was the dejection which ensued when any one felt himself sickening, for the despair into which they instantly fell took away their power of resistance, and left them a much easier prey to the disorder; besides which, there was the awful spectacle of men dying like sheep, through having caught the infection in nursing each other.
The move worked, after Pericles lost his power he was reinstated as commander of the military for a year before death. Indeed it was actually asserted that the departure of the Peloponnesians was hastened by fear of the disorder; as they heard from deserters that it was in the city, and also could see the burials going on.
On the other hand, if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence to those of you who will now be in widowhood, it will be all comprised in this brief exhortation. My war is bigger than yours When Thucydides set out to compose his work, the writing of warfare was already a notable tradition launched with a bang by the legendary Homer about three centuries earlier.
As a rule, however, there was no ostensible cause; but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heats in the head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward parts, such as the throat or tongue, becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath.
Ancient rhetoricians actually had a name for that that: Perhaps he meant to reference the development of the Athenian government and the role the ancestors served in creating it. For it is only the love of honour that never grows old; and honour it is, not gain, as some would have it, that rejoices the heart of age and helplessness.
However, since our ancestors have stamped this custom with their approval, it becomes my duty to obey the law and to try to satisfy your several wishes and opinions as best I may. It was a custom of their ancestors, and the manner of it is as follows.
The end of it was that Hagnon returned with his ships to Athens, having lost one thousand and fifty out of four thousand heavy infantry in about forty days; though the soldiers stationed there before remained in the country and carried on the siege of Potidaea.
In the first days of summer the Lacedaemonians and their allies, with two-thirds of their forces as before, invaded Attica, under the command of Archidamus, son of Zeuxidamus, King of Lacedaemon, and sat down and laid waste the country.
And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. Thucydides (c/c BCE): Pericles' Funeral Oration from the Peloponnesian War (Book ) This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war.
Thucydides explores many themes within his work, The History Of the Peloponnesian War. A prominent theme can be found in book 2 chapter 53, in which, Thucydides describes Athens after it had been hit with a devastating plague. Aug 21, · Historians suggest that Pericles' funeral oration, as recounted in the "History of the Peloponnesian War," was a model for Abraham Lincoln's “Gettysburg Address.” Both utilize similar tone, themes and structure, although Lincoln's text is only one-tenth as long.
Thucydides’s History of the Peloponnesian War breaks off before the story is over. After detailing the armed conflict between the Athenians and the Spartans (and their respective allies) between.
The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of the Peloponnesian War.” Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only.
This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, and it occurred in B.C., just after the start of war. Pericles' Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
The speech was delivered by Pericles, an eminent Athenian politician, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (– BC) as a part of the annual public funeral for the war dead.An analysis of pericles funeral oration from thucydides history of the peloponnesian war